2012, vol XX, # 4
2012, vol XX, # 4, page 382
Volodymyr A. Vinnikov
The Effect of Radiotherapy Patients' Blood Plasma on the Apoptosis Rate in Unirradiated Human Leukocytes
Objectives: There are rather contradictory data concerning radiation-induced, toxic bystander effects mediated by human irradiated blood plasma. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether cancer patients' blood plasma after radiotherapy can induce an apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM).
Material and Methods: Plasma was collected from blood of 18 uterine cancer patients before and after 60Со radiotherapy to the pelvis (20 x 2 Gy, 5 fractions/week). Healthy donor's PBM were separated with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 °С. The controls were plasma-free cultures and cultures of PBM separated from the donor's blood given 2 Gy y-rays in vitro. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry.
Results: Patients' blood plasma collected either before or after radiotherapy did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in reporter PBM. By contrast, direct irradiation caused significant apoptotic death in PBM, which yield exceeded any fluctuations of reporter PBM survival caused by patients' plasma.
Conclusions: Other assays instead of apoptosis in unirradiated quiescent leukocytes should be applied for detecting possible untargeted radiation effects mediated by radiotherapy patients' blood plasma.
Key words: bystander effect, radiotherapy, apoptosis, human blood plasma, leukocytes, cytotoxic plasma factors.
2012, vol XX, # 4, page 391
The capabilities of computed tomography in diagnosis of purulent destructive lung diseases
Objective: To determine and specify the character of computed tomography signs of purulent destructive lung diseases.
Material and Methods: CT findings of the investigation of chest organs were analyzed in 26 patients aged 18-78 with purulent destructive lung diseases (abscess and gangrene). The diagnosis was verified using clinical laboratory examination, instrumental studies (bronchoscopy), disease dynamics.
Results: Computed tomography signs of abscesses and gangrene were specified. Non-drained acute abscesses in 19.2% (5 cases) were similar to the initial phase of infiltration and necrosis of infection destruction. The phase of forming was similar to spherical pneumonia, looked like one or several infiltrations of high optic density with homogeneous structure measuring 5-10 cm. This was followed by development of one or several cavities in the area of the infiltration. After draining of acute abscesses (61.5 %) axial sections demonstrated a spherical cavity, gas and fluid levels were typical. The most frequent were abscesses 6 cm in the diameter (6 persons, 37.6%).
A characteristic sign of gangrenous abscess was visualization of sequestration in its cavity, which was present in 3 patients (18.8 %). In gangrene (3.8 %), the cavities formed by means of merging of separate zones of fusion. Unfavorable dynamics and CT manifestations allowed differentiation of gangrene and gangrenous abscess, the changes were characterized by enlargement of the cavities, involvement of new areas of the lungs, development of new large sequestrations. The abscess was complicated by pleurisy, empyema of the pleura, and formation of pulmonary pleural fistulas. In 15.4% of cases chromic abscesses were characterized by thick-wall destruction cavities, subpleural location and diminishing of the volume of the involved lung area.
Conclusion: Simultaneous use of traditional radiography and CT increased the efficacy of the diagnosis and allowed to limit the use of invasive methods of investigation. Computed tomography of purulent destructive lung diseases allows timely diagnosis and differential diagnosis using characteristic signs
in some cases.
Key words: CT diagnosis, purulent destructive diseases, peculiarities of the course.
2012, vol XX, # 4, page 398
Ultrasound duplex investigation in assessment of the changes in the cerebral hemodynamics in patients with high degree carotid stenosis before and after their surgical treatment
Objective: To determine the peculiarities of cerebral hemodynamics integral parameters in patients with high-degree stenosis of carotid arteries and the dynamics of their restoration after surgical correction using carotid angioplasty and stent application (CASA).
Material and Methods: The study involved 54 patients with stenotic involvement of the carotid arteries who were performed CASA in 2003-2011. The character of the stenotic injury, the structure of the plaques and degree of occlusive stenotic process as well as integral indices of cerebral hemodynamics were investigated using ultrasound duplex scanning (UDS) followed by stenosis determining using selective cerebral angiography.
Results: It was determined that the patients with highdegree carotid stenosis requiring surgical correction demonstrated significant changes of the values of integral parameters of cerebral blood flow, namely significant reduction of the level of total cerebral volume blood flow due to the changes in its carotid component. The patients with high-degree stenosis of one of the internal carotid arteries (ICA) with occlusion of the opposite ICA demonstrated higher degree of disorders and
higher tension of the compensation mechanisms, which manifested by significant reduction of the value of total cerebral volume blood flow against a background of significant increase of its cerebral component.
Conclusion: Determining the values of integral indices of volume blood flow using UDS allows an objective assessment of the efficacy of operative intervention in high-degree carotid artery stenosis in early and long-term post-operative period.
Positive dynamics in the changes of the blood flow in carotid and vertebrobasilar basins which reflect compensation adaptation mechanisms of autoregulation of the cerebral blood flow are observed in the patients with occlusive involvement of the collateral ICA after the correction of ICA stenosis.
Key words: ultrasound duplex scanning, cerebral hemodynamics, carotid stenosis, surgery.
2012, vol XX, # 4, page 405
Long-term results of treatment for vulvar cancer
Objective: The aim of our study conducted in the framework of the international multi-center research project "VulCan", organized by the Spanish Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, was to analyze the results of treatment of vulvar cancer patients with IA - IVA (T1-3N0-2M0) stages.
Material and Methods: A retrospective study of the 19 patients with stage IA-IVA (T1-3N0-2M0) vulvar cancer, who were treated at the hospital of Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology (National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine) within the period from 2001 to 2005.
Results: It was revealed that the degree of tumor differentiation did not affect the stage of the disease. The involvement of regional lymphatic nodes was detected in 26.3 % of cases. The disease relapse was observed in 26.3% of patients within 3 years, 40.0 % of which were in the region of the primary tumor.
Conclusion: General and disease-free 5-year survival rate in stage I-IV VC patients showed 73.7 %. Preoperative radiation therapy decreased the rate of local relapses.
Key words: vulvar cancer, tumor grade, relapse of the disease.
2012, vol XX, # 4, page 411
L.I. Símonova, L.V. Bilogurova, V.Z. Gertman, O.M. Kurov
Investigation of photon-magnetic therapy efficacy in prevention and treatment of experimental local radiation skin lesions Communication 1. The peculiarities of the course of radiation dermatitis in rats at spontaneous healing and at application of photon-magnetic therapy
Objective: To investigate experimentally the influence of photon-magnetic therapy on development of local radiation lesions on the skin in rats.
Material and Methods: The experiment was performed on white male Wistar rats in which an area of the skin on the thigh was exposed to x-rays of an x-ray unit at a dose of 50.0 Gy. Photon-magnetic therapy (PMT) was delivered to the exposed zone using a matrix device Barva Fleks/Mag. The treatment started immediately after the exposure, the sessions of PMT were administered twice a week 20 min each. The course of treatment lasted 2 weeks. The general state of the animals and development of local radiation lesions (LRL) were observed for 3 months in the controls with spontaneous healing and in the group of PMT.
Results: Local irradiation at a dose of 50.0 Gy caused development of dry (68%) and wet 16% radiation dermatitis, spontaneous healing of which started not earlier than day 30. Administration of PMT considerably reduced the incidence of radiation dermatitis, completely prevented development of wet dermatitis. The animals with PMT demonstrated earlier (by 1.5 week) healing of radiation skin lesions and full epithelization of the wound with sound restoration of the fleece. Reduction
of the number of microscopic signs of development of long-term radiation lesions of the skin can be considered a positive sign.
Conclusion: Local x-ray exposure of the rats at a dose of 50.0 Gy caused development of radiation dermatitis with imperfect skin healing with scars and incomplete restoration of the fleece as a consequence. Administration of photon-magnetic therapy positively influenced healing of skin radiation lesions in locally irradiated animals. PMT resulted in reduction or disappearing of main links of metamorphosis of the wound area, which promoted acceleration of regeneration processes and
allowed to prevent development of post-radiation long-term consequences of the exposure.
Key words: photon-magnetic therapy, x-rays, local radiation lesion s of the skin, radiation dermatitis.
2012, vol XX, # 4, page 418
Research and Practice Conference Contemporary Approaches to Medical Check-up of the Persons Working with Sources of Ionizing Radiation (October 18-19, 2012, Kharkiv)
2012, vol XX, # 4, page 418
Clinical diagnostic aspects of thyroid pathology in patients under medical observation
Summary. Check-ups of the patients exposed to ionizing radiation at thrir place of work often reveal autoimmune thyroiditis. Tit is frequently revealed 2-3 years from the diseae beginning in patients with the mean age 48.5 years. The necessity of obligatory examination protocol both at the stage of diagnsosis and annual monitoring was indicated.
Key words: thyroid pathology, diagnostic algorythm of the
2012, vol XX, # 4, page 421
O.V. Zínvalyuk, L.L. Stadnik
Assessment of professional radiation risk of cancer development in patients exposed to ionizing radiation at the place of work
Summary. Determining a distinct and informative criterion of the association between the potential occupational disease and the conditions of work is necessary for quick and effective work of check-up commissions in Ukraine. Main capabilities of these assessments of radiation risks of stochastic effects as such criterion are featured. The authors characterize the up-to-date models of determining such risks and discuss the problems of introduction of the suggested method for extensive use.
Key words: radiation risk, model of risk assessment, check-up commission, dose matrix, attributive risk, probability of causation.
2012, vol XX, # 4, page 424
L.L. Stadnik, O.V. Zínvalyuk
Methodological approaches to assessment of internal irradiation dose in underground workers of uranium mines
Summary. A short review of main principles of retrospective assessment of the doses of internal irradiation was made in the workers of uranium industry used in the practice of central check-up commission of S.P. Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology (Academy of medical Sciences of Ukraine).
The algorithm of calculation of effective and equivalent doses based on sanitary-hygienic characteristics of the conditions of work according to the effective norms of radiation safety was described.
Key words: dose retrospective assessment, workers of uranium mines, uranium long-living radionuclides, radon decay daughter products, sanitary-hygienic characteristics.
We are proud to announce the annual scientific conference of young scientists with the international participation, dedicated to the Day of Science in Ukraine. The conference will be held on 20th of May, 2016 and hosted by L.T. Malaya National Therapy Institute, NAMS of Ukraine together with Grigoriev Institute for medical Radiology, NAMS of Ukraine. The leading topic of conference is prophylaxis of the non-infectious disease in different branched of medicine.
Since 1993 the Institute became the founder and publisher of "Ukrainian Journal of Radiology”: