Home » Ukrainian Journal of Radiology » 2010, vol XVIII, # 4

2010, vol XVIII, # 4

THE CONTENTS

 

2010, vol XVIII, #4, page 417

V.I. Sipityy, G.A. Yakimov, V.Yu. Sviridenko, V.M. Kupin, Yu.O. Babalyan, V.V. Vorobyov

Radiation diagnosis of sequestrated intervertebral disk hernias of the lumbar spine

Annotation

Objective: To determine the efficacy of radiation diagnosis at sequestrated intervertebral disk hernias of the lumbosacral spine.

Material and Methods: The work is based on complex examination of 137 patients with sequestrated intervertebral disk hernias of the lumbosacral spine with the use of an x-ray (spondylography + functional investigation) method, helical computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: Specific spondylography signs (cross-bar sign, vacuum phenomenon, sharp reduction of the height of the disk) allowed to diagnose disk hernias at L3—L4 in 2 (1.6 %), L4-L5 — in 18 (13.1 %), L5-S1 — in 52 (37.9 %) cases. In 65 (47%) patients spondylography allowed to diagnose the presence of degenerative dystrophic changes, but it was impossible to determine the right level of the sequestration, which was later confirmed by MRI and intraoperative findings.
Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine was done in 137 cases (100%), which allowed to obtaine complete information about the sequestration formation and its relation to the membranes of the terminal cistern and caudal radices.
Helical computed tomography (HCT) and MRI of the lumbosacral spine in 15 (10.9 %) patients allowed to verify the combination of the diskogenic sequestration and arthrogenic lateral stenosis in 10 (7.3 %) cases. In 5 (3.6 %) cases circular osteophites were present, which together with the hernias caused compression of the caudal radices.
Conclusion: High informativity makes magnetic resonance imaging a method of choice at investigation of the patients with
sequestrated disk hernias in the lumbosacral spine. Helical computed tomography is an important additional method of examination, which specifies the character of the spondylogenic and arthrogenic changes.

Key words: sequestrated disk hernias, informativity, spondylography, helical computed tomography.

2010, vol XVIII, #4, page 421

L.V. Myronchuk

X-ray diagnostic data on posttraumatic deforming arthrosis and elbow joint contracture

Annotation

Objective: To investigate the most common complications of elbow joint (EJ) injuries and their degree using x-ray findings at various types of traumas.

Material and Methods: Plain and digital x-ray films in frontal and lateral (functional) projections were analyzed in 138 patients
(of them 90 men and 48 women) with complications of EJ injuries who were treated and underwent medical social expertise at Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics of Ukrainian Government Research Institute of Medical and Social Problems of Disability.
Digital radiography of the upper extremity was performed using the original technique (Patents of Ukraine Ms 28367 dated 2007 and M 30414 dated 2008) in vertical position of the patient at the hand supination in frontal projection with formation of the image of the whole extremity.

Results: The incidence of complications of traumatic EJ compli- cations depending on the trauma type was established. The most common complications were arthrosis deformans (75.4 %), contractures (58.7 %), post-traumatic shortening (57.2 %), and the most uncommon ones were instability (15.2 %) and formation of false joints (10.1 %). The complications developed more frequently at injuries of the distal portion of the humerus and combined injuries of humerus, ulna and radius. The majority of patients with contractures developed considerable function disturbance at stage 1 (66.7 %), 2 (26 %) or 3 (39.4 %) of arthrosis deformans.
Conclusion: Radiography is the main method of diagnosis of EJ injury consequences, among them the most frequent are arthrosis deformans and contractures, therefore the volume of EJ volume should be considered when determining the disease stages. Improved digital radiography of the upper extremity allows to improve informativity and simplify radiogrammetry.

Key words: elbow joint, arthrosis deformans, digital radiography.

2010, vol XVIII, #4, page 426

L.O. Gaysenyuk, G.V. Kulinich, L.L. Stadnyk, L.G. Lanko, V.P. Lavrik

Irradiation doses and clinical peculiarities of occupational lung cancer in miners of uranium mines

Annotation

Objective: To analyze the dose loads and clinical morphological characteristics of occupational cancer in miners of uranium mines using the information of medical documents for further determining the additional criteria for expertise of this disease.

Material and Methods: Sanitary hygienic characteristics and case histories of 35 miners of uranium mines with the diagnosis of occupational cancer of the respiratory organs were analyzed. The information of sanitary hygienic characteristic was used for reconstructive assessment of the effective dose (whole body dose) and equivalent doses in the lungs in the patients of this group.
Clinical, morphological, x-ray, instrumental peculiarities of respiratory organ cancer were assessed. The course of the disease
and treatment stages were determined.

Results: The findings of reconstructive assessment of accumulated and equivalent doses in the lungs of 35 miners allowed to obtain the data suggesting that at 20-year record of working in the mine, mean value of accumulated dose was 500 mSv, accumulated equivalent dose in the lungs about 2000 mSv. It was established that in 37% of the miners, accumulated equivalent dose due to long-living decay products and uranium long-living alpha-nuclides exceeded 0.75 dose limit, while in 17.2% the doses in the lungs corresponded to the values of the permissible dose or exceeded it. The analysis of case histories of the miners allowed establishing clinical morphological peculiarities of occupational cancer of the respiratory
organs in miners of uranium mines.
Conclusion: The obtained findings about the dose load of the miners of various professional groups of uranium mines suggest
that they did not exceed the limits of the permissible irradiation doses.
Occupational lung cancer in 35 miners is characterized by delayed stages of diagnosis of the lung pathology, development of lung cancer against a background of chronic obstructive diseases. The peculiarities of occupational cancer histology are prevalence of smallcell cancer when compared with other histological types of the tumors, presence of accompanying diseases of the locomotor system, carviovascular, pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems.

Key words: occupational cancer, sanitary-hygienic conditions, effective and equivalent dose, clinical morphological characteristics of lung cancer.

2010, vol XVIII, #4, page 432

L.M. Ovsyannikov, I.M. Homazyuk, O.M. Nastin, S.M. Alyokhina

Long-term state of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection in participants of Chоrnobyl accident clean-up with chronic coronary artery disease

Annotation

Objective: To determine the peculiarities of changes of lipid peroxidation (LP) parameters and antioxidant protection parameters, distinguish the principal ones for the participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up with stable angina.

Material and Methods: The study involved 86 participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up in 1986-1987, of them 37 with stable angina (group 1) and 49 without the diseases of the blood circulation system (group 2). External irradiation dose (EID) ranged within 0.1-50.0 cSv. Group 3 were 54 subjects without the diseases of the blood circulation system who were not exposed to ionizing radiation. Standard complex of clinical examination (tonometry, electrocardiography with circadian monitoring as well as echo-Doppler cardiography, veloergometry, analysis of peculiarities of radiation exposure, determining LP products, free radical protein modification, antioxidant protection parameters) was used.
The database was formed in Microsoft Excel 2003, statistical processing was done using integrated packages.

Results: Regular activation of free-radical oxidation exceeding the data of non-exposed persons was registered in participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up. Increased amount of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) was revealed in 100% of the investigated, dien conjugate almost in 90% . In 65% of them, the level of function of antioxidant protection system was insufficient for maintenance of pro-antioxidant balance. These changers were the most prominent at irradiation of 25 cSv and higher and at angina presence. Direct dependence was observed between EID and MDA (r = 40, p < 0.05), reverse with the factor of antioxidant system (FA0S) (r = 0.52; p = 0.05). The variance of MDA at irradiation up to 25 cSv and higher was 20.5 %, reduction of FA0S - 47.5 % (p < 0.05). More pronounced changes were revealed at total duration of ischemia > 20 min/day, FA0S reduced by 49.6 %, superdysmutase to MDA ratio by 42.9 %.
Conclusion: Activation of free-radical oxidation and insufficient level of free-radical protection is typical for participants of
Chornobyl accident clean-up. The degree of these changes at irradiation at a dose of 25 cSv and more and myocardium ischemia 20 and more min/day was significantly higher. Oxidant stress in these subjects can influence the initiation of atherosclerosis development.

Key words: Chornobyl accident, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant protection, ionized radiation, angina, myocardium ischemia.

2010, vol XVIII, #4, page 439

O.A. Gorobchenko, O.T. Nikolov, E.M. Mamotyuk, V.M. Ivashchenko

Dielectric investigation of water state in suspensions of ultra disperse nanodiamonds

(On mechanisms of radioprotection effect of nanodiamond water suspension)

Annotation

Objective: To assess the state of water in suspensions of ultradisperse nanodiamonds (UDD) at different concentrations of
nanoparticles using UHF dielectrometry.

Material and Methods: Water suspensions of UDD in concentrations of particles 1.75, 0.88, 0.44 and 3.5 mass % were investigated. Dielectric properties of the samples were measured suiting UHF dielectrometry at 9.2 GHz. Low-frequency electric conductivity was measured by a bridge of direct current at 1 kHz, using a focus with platinum electrodes.

Results: It was revealed that increase of UDD concentration resulted in reduction of dielectric permittivity (e') and dielectric loss (e") of nanoparticle suspension which can be explained by replacement of the particles of water volume by nanoparticles and its structurization on the surface of particles. It was established that the value of static dielectric permittivity es reduced linearly with the increase of nanoparticle concentration up to 3.5 mass %, and frequency of dielectric relaxation of water molecules fd also reduced at the UDD concentration 3.5 mass %. The degree of hydration of nanoparticles of UDD in the suspensions was calculated.
Conclusion: Two types of structured water, i.e. strong bound with the surface of UDD hydration water and volume water characterized by reduced frequency of dielectric relaxation when compared with pure water, are present in water suspensions. Structurization of water with nanodiamonds can determine their radioprotective properties. Comparison of the values of static dielectric permittivity £s with theoretically calculated values of effective dielectric permittivity of UDD suspension allows to conclude about the presence of a layer of hydration water on the surface of nanoparticles of UDD
and calculate the degree of hydration. According to the calculation, thickness of the layer of bound by UDD water makes 1.8-2,0 nm depending on the concentration of nanoparticles.

Key words: ultradisperse nanodiamonds, hydration, structured water, UHF-dielectrometry.

2010, vol XVIII, #4, page 446

E.M. Gorban, N.V. Topolnikova, M.V. Osipov

Age-dependent peculiarities of radiation changes of the organism insulin resistance under the conditions of hypoxia

Annotation

Objective: To determine the influence of hypoxic load and single x-ray exposure at a sublethal dose on adult and old rats on the levels of insulin (Ins), 11 -oxicorticosteroids (11 -OCS) and glucose in the blood, glucose tolerance (GT), reference indices of the tissue sensitivity to Ins, parameters of free-radical (FR) processes in the blood and liver tissue.

Material and Methods: The study was performed on three groups of adult (6 months) and old (24 months) Wistar male rats:
group 1 - controls, group 2 - x-ray exposure at a dose of 12.9 sC/kg (5Gy) (dose rate 1.29 sC/kg per minute, irradiation time 10 min), group 3 - irradiation + hypoxic load (respiration with mixture of 10 V% O2 for 1 min before the exposure and 10 min during the exposure). The level of Ins, 11-OCS, blood glucose, changes in the glucose level in the blood at sugar load, reference values of the tissue sensitivity to Ins (HOMA and Matsuda indices); parameters of FR processes intensity and activity of enzymes of antioxidant protection (catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the blood and liver tissue
were investigated.

Results: Increase of Ins and 11-OCS in the blood of only adult rats was revealed 2 days after the exposure, this was prevented by hypoxic influence. Glucose levels in the blood of the both age groups 2-3 days after the exposure did not change but GT was reduced.
Hypoxic influence prevented GT reduction in the animals of the both groups. The changes of reference parameters of NOMA and Matsuda were determined in the animals of both age groups, which suggested radiation dependent increase of insulin resistance (IR), which can be prevented by hypoxic action only in old animals. This influence prevented FR processes activation in the irradiated animals of the both groups.
Conclusion: Combination of hypoxic load and single x-ray exposure of adult and old rats at a sublethal dose of 12.9 sC/kg
(5Gy) prevented increase of Ins and 11 -OCS levels in the plasma of adult rats, reduction of GT and activation of FR processes in rats of both age groups and development of IR in old animals.

Key words: ionized radiation, hypoxic influence, insulin resistance, age-dependent peculiarities.

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