2002, vol X, # 1
2002, vol 10, № 1, page 6
E.V.Luchitskiy, S.K. Kobjakov, V.M. Slavnov, N.O. Kovpan
Radionuclide angiography and scan of testes in patients with diabetes mellitus
Objective: To study the structural and functional state and separate hemodynamics of the testes in patients with diabetes mellitus using a complex of radionuclide techniques.
Material and Methods: The study involved 34 male patients aged 28–53; group 1 included healthy subjects, group 2 those with hypogonadism, group 3 with diabetes mellitus. All the patients were performed clinical laboratory, andrology and hormone study. Radionuclide angiography and scan of the testes were done after intravenous injection of 370 MBq Tc-99m pertechnetate using scintillation gamma-camera MB 9200 with a system of automatic data processing Microsegams.
Results: Radionuclide angiography of the testes allowed evaluating the state of arterial in-flow in the large and small vessels of the testes as well as the state of the venous bed. Testis scan helped to determine the localization, size and functional activity of the organ.
Conclusion: In patients with diabetes mellitus, disturbances of arterial blood flow in the large vessels and capillaries of the testes as well as changes in the venous blood flow are observed. Radionuclide scan demonstrates reduction in the amount of actively functioning areas of the parenchyma and appearance of inactive areas.
Key words: radionuclide angiography of testes, testis scan, hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus.
2002, vol 10, № 1, page 10
The diagnosis of CNS perinatal injuries in fetuses and newborns (comparison of neurosonography and MRI)
Objective: To investigate and to evaluate the significance of MRI in diagnosis of perinatal hypoxic fetal CNS injuries, to assess its efficacy in comparison with neurosonography.
Material and Methods: Analysis of neurosonographic and MRI data of fetal CNS conditions in 289 high-risk pregnant women with diagnosed fetal hypoxia was carried out. The data obtained were compared with data obtained with the same methods in an early neonatal period.
Results: Indications for MRI in diagnosis of perinatal hypoxic fetal CNS injuries in high-risk pregnant women were substantiated and summed up. The terms of gestation of the fetus, the most optimal projections and time parameters to obtain the best fetal CNS images were defined. It was found out that accuracy of differential diagnosis of the character of hypoxic fetal CNS injuries (ischemia, hemorrhages, combined injuries) was 92.7%, as the neurosonography provided 51.5% of diagnostic accuracy only.
Conclusions: MRI is a crucial method of accurate diagnosis of the character and volume of hypoxic brain injuries and may substantiate significantly the tactics of delivery management.
Key words: MRI, neurosonography, fetal hypoxia, hypoxic fetal CNS injuries.
2002, vol 10, № 1, page 13
D.S.Mechev, O.V. Scherbina, J.S. Babiy, N.I. Poljakova, M.V. Krushitskiy
Radionuclide and drug therapy for skeletal metastases
Objective: To analyze the results of combined radionuclide (Sr-98 and P-32) and drug (bisphosphonates: Bonefos and Aredia) systemic therapy of 136 patients with bone metastases of breast and prostate cancer.
Material and Methods: The patients were divided into 6 groups (only Sr-89, only P-32, Sr-89 and Bonefos, P-32 and Bonefos, Sr-89 and Aredia, P-32 and Aredia). The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated using Karnofski’s scale and the scale for evaluation of analgesia (pain) degree as well as laboratory (blood count, blood calcium) and radiological (RIA of PSA, radiography, bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging) techniques.
Results: The most effective treatment was combination of Sr-89 chloride and Aredia; the index of “comfort” during the first year after the treatment was 87.5%. When Sr-89 chloride alone was administered, it was 80.9%.
This combination of the preparations decelerated the progress of the bone metastases, stabilized the changes and in a number of cases provided osteosclerosis development in these areas.
Conclusion: Pamidronate (Aredia) produces longer positive effect, is better tolerated by the bone tissue and inhibits osteoclasts more actively when compared with Bonefos. The authors recommend the protocols for treatment of bone breast and prostate metastases using radionuclide, hormone therapy as well as bisphosphonates and supporting drug therapy.
Key words: radionuclide therapy with P-32 and Sr-89, bisphosphonates, Aredia, Karnofski’s scale, evaluation of treatment efficacy, blood calcium level, PSA, bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging.
2002, vol 10, № 1, page 24
Comparative estimation of x-ray protective materials based on lead and nonleaded fillers
Objective: Quantitative comparison of x-ray protective characteristics for composite materials based on lead and nonleaded fillers that are used for medical x-ray protective articles manufacturing.
Material and Methods: Procedure for computation of x-ray attenuation coefficients was tested with the use of the material samples, x-ray and dosimetric equipment. Then attenuation coefficient values depending on the x-ray tube voltage within the range of 30–150 kV were computed for three materials containing the fillers of various kind. Lead, mixture of rare-earth oxides and mixture of tungsten carbide with zirconium oxide were investigated as fillers. X-ray tube voltage dependence on attenuation coefficient and lead equivalent were drawn.
Results: Distribution of the places on diminution of protective properties among the materials depended on x-ray tube voltage. Attenuation coefficient of the materials fell sharply at voltage increasе. A simple comparison of various materials was possible only on noncrossing parts of voltage dependence of specific attenuation coefficient. Taking into account secondary radiation the use of protective means having in low-energy range attenuation coefficient more than ~103 was inexpedient. In order to compare the properties of materials containing fillers of various kind for the choice of protective material it should attract the reasons of functional expediency.
Conclusion: X-ray tube anode voltage dependence of specific attenuation coefficient is a significant index for comparison of x-ray protective materials of various kinds. Monotony of this dependence graph over the range of operational voltage is the necessary condition of material convenience for protective means. Indication of lead equivalent is uninformative as applied to nonleaded materials.
Key words: х-ray protective composite materials, nonleaded fillers, specific attenuation coefficient, lead equivalent
2002, vol 10, № 1, page 29
V.V. Bojko, J.E. Vikman, J.B. Grigorjev, J.V.Avdosjev
Results of treatment of patients with portal hypertension caused by liver cirrhosis and vascular hapetic failure
Objective: To study the results of treatment of patients with liver cirrhosis and phenomena of vascular hepatic failure.
Material and Methods: Complex treatment of 64 patients (46 men and 18 women) with the phenomena of vascular hepatic failure caused by cirrhosis of the liver which was characterized by bleedings from varicose veins of the esophagus and stomach, after correction of the bleeding and mini-invasive procedures. In 5 patients, to stop the bleeding endovascular embolization of splenic arteria was performed (EESA). 23 patients had compensated stage, 20 — subcompensared, 21 patients — decompensated.
The investigations were made within 60 days after beginning of the disease and starting treatment with the account of the functional state of the liver and parameters of circulation in the vessels of the portal system. Ultrasound investigation was made using SAL-77А (Toshiba, Japan) and SIM 5000 (Italy) units with black-and-white and duplex sonography.
Results: It was established that treatment of the patients with portal hypertension caused by vascular hepatic failure, demanded an individual approach in dependence of the stage of portal hypertension, functional state of the liver, the state of compensation opportunities of the organism of the patients. Most effective is application of miniinvasive procedures and their combination, which depends on the stage of the disease.
Conclusion: Portal hypertension with phenomena of vascular hepatic failure manifests by bleedings from dilated veins of the esophagus and stomach against a background of disturbances of the functional state of the liver, circulation and compensation mechanisms of the organism. The treatment of the patients of this category depends on the stage of portal hypertension, state of the patient and includes the methods of achievement of hemostasis, correction of portal pressure and enriching hepatic circulation. The use of individualized tactics and comlex approach with mini-invasive procedures improves the results of treatment and rehabilitation terms.
Key words: portal hypertension, vascular hepatic failure, ultrasonography.
2002, vol 10, № 1, page 32
N.O. Maznik, V.A. Vinnikov, O.A. Mihanovskiy, O.M. Suhina, V.O. Tepla
Cytogenetic effects in patients with cervical and ovarian cancers undergoing radiation therapy
Objective: To study the cytogenetic effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with ovarian or cervical cancers during radiation therapy course and to evaluate the informativity of different cytogenetic end-points for radiation effect estimation in cases of fractionated partial-body irradiation.
Material and Methods: Patients undergoing radiation treatment due to ovarian or cervical cancers were investigated. The unstable chromosome aberration and aneuploidy yields in metaphases of 50-hrs peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures using the routine cytogenetic technique were measured in 30 patients before irradiation, in 20 - at the middle of the irradiation course and in 23 - at the end of the treatment.
Results: The cytogenetic changes in patients during radiation therapy were displayed as dramatic increase of chromosome type aberration level accompanied by the low positive trend of chromatid aberrations and genomic damage yields accumulation from the beginning to the end of the treatment course. Within the interval"before treatment - the middle of the course" the statistical increase was shown for the yields of aberrant cells, total aberrations, chromosome type aberrations, dicentrics and centric rings, acentrics. Between the middle to the end of treatment the difference in the cytogenetic damage level appeared to be significant for all the end-points mentioned above exept acentrics. The individual aberration yields within the groups were overdispersed mainly because of significant variability of the dicentric and centric ring levels.
Conclusion: Statisticaly significant increase of the aberrant lymphocyte level in patients undergoing radiation therapy underlines the efficacy of the genotoxic effect of ionizing radiation on the normal tissues within the irradiated part of the body during radiation treatment course. The total level of chromosome type aberrations and the unstable chromosome exhanges yield appeared to be the main end-points for comparative analysis of the cytogenetic effects induced by different methods of radiation therapy.
Key words: сhromosome aberrations, lymphocytes, radiation therapy, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer.
2002, vol 10, № 1, page 37
V.I. Zukov, A.B.Mitrjaev, R.I. Karpenko
The effect of ionizing radiation and 12-crown-4 on antioxidant system activity and lipid peroxidation intensity
Objective: To compare 12-crown-4 and ionizing radiation action on antioxidant system activity and lipid peroxidation rate at subacute experiment conditions with white rats.
Material and Methods: The animals from the first experimental group were administered 12-crown-4 water emulsion at 1/1000 LD50 (1.79 mg/kg). The rats from the second experimental group were exposed to chronic general irradiation (24 hours a day, daily, within the same period) generated with «Experiment» unit (Russia, g-radiation source — 60Со). The antioxidant system was studied by determination of free blood SH-group amount with apometric titration method, SH-glutathione contents and ceruloplasmin activity in the blood serum, blood catalase and peroxidase enzyme activity, and vitamin C contents in adrenal glands. Free radical oxidation process state was evaluated by liver dienic conjugate and malonic dialdehyde contents (MDA).
Results: Experiments demonstrated unidirectional reliable increase in organ and tissue biochemiluminescence of both experimental groups. Ceruloplasmin and SH-glutathione activity of the blood serum and catalase and peroxydase activity of the blood decreased in both groups. Vitamin C contents of the adrenal gland elevated on the 7th experimental day, but it significantly (р<0,05) decreased towards the end of the experiment in both groups of rats (expozed animals — 7.38±0.257, 12-crown-4 toxified animals — 8.17±0.340, controls — 11.41±0.420 micromol/g). The influence of ionizing radiation and 12-crown-4 also resulted in significant dienic conugate and malonic dialdehyde (lipid peroxidation products) accumulation in the liver of the experimental animals.
Conclusions: Crown-ether and radiation damage effects are based on free radical pathology accompanied by bioenergetic and redox process disturbance and cellular membrane structural organization alterations. According to its biological action, 12-crown-4 as a characteristic representative of macrocyclic crown-ethers may be related to radiomimetics.
Key words: ionizing radiation, crown-ethers, antioxidant system, biochemiluminescence, vitamin C, lipid peroxidation.
2002, vol 10, № 1, page 41
O.S. Dudnichenko, T.P.Jakimova, S.M. Kartashov, V.E. Kulshin
Influence of p16 gene on ovarian cancer development
Ojective: To study the role of p16 gene in serous ovarian cancer (OC) development.
Material and Methods: The state of p16 INK gene was studied using methylation of the promoter region of the gene in the tissue of the ovaries of 54 women (of them 22 had given birth, 18 with tubular infertility, 14 with endocrine infertility), 24 patients with cystadenomas and 18 with OC.
Results: Methylation of p16 gene was revealed in 5.6% of cases in the ovaries of women from the risk group, in 12.5% of patients with cystadenomas and in 55.6% of patients with OC.
The analysis of the correlation between the family history of cancer and the state of p16 gene demonstrated that in women from the risk group and in patients with cystadenoma of ovaries, methylation of p16 gene is more frequent at family history of cancer, while in OC patients a reverse tendency was noted, p16 gene was more frequently inhibited in a sporadic disease.
The evaluation of the age dependence of p16 gene methylation in women from the risk group, patients with cystadenomas and OC without taking into consideration the family history of cancer demonstrated that inhibition of the investigated gene is more common in an old age.
Conclusion: Methylation of suppressor gene of cellular cycle (p16) is observed in the majority of OC patients which proves its significance in the development of the disease. The frequency of p16 methylation increases with the age. Inhibition of p16 gene is a pathogenetic factor of OC development both in women with family history of cancer and in sporadic cancer.
Key words: ovary, cystadenoma of the ovary, ovarian cancer, p16 gene.
We are proud to announce the annual scientific conference of young scientists with the international participation, dedicated to the Day of Science in Ukraine. The conference will be held on 20th of May, 2016 and hosted by L.T. Malaya National Therapy Institute, NAMS of Ukraine together with Grigoriev Institute for medical Radiology, NAMS of Ukraine. The leading topic of conference is prophylaxis of the non-infectious disease in different branched of medicine.
Since 1993 the Institute became the founder and publisher of "Ukrainian Journal of Radiology”: