2001, vol IX, # 3
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 257
R. Hleyzene, V. Mamontovas
Computed tomography diagnosis of brain metastases
Objective: To determine the frequency of brain metastases diagnosis and to reveal their distribution depending on densitometry data as well as localization of the primary tumor, age and sex of the patients.
Material and Methods: The investigation was performed at Department of Tomography of Radiology Clinic (Clinical Hospital of Kaunas Medical University) using Somatom Plus 4 unit. The study involved 147 patients, 1.6% of 12,156 patients examined in 1999-2000. All 147 patients were referred to Radiology Clinic with suspected brain metastases. The study was done using similar scanning technique: subtentorial with 3 mm slices and supra-tentorial with 10 mm slices (scanning window parameters: subtentorial W-130, C-35, supratentorial W-90, C-35).
All scans were also analyzed in the bone window (W-3200, C-700) to determine identification capabilities of possible metastases in the skull bones. Every patient was also examined using contrast enhancement (Omnipaque 240, 1 ml/kg body weight). Densitometry was performed using Hounsfield units (HU).
Results: The studies performed allowed to obtain the following findings: density of necrotic portion of the brain metastases was 18-20 HU excluding melanoma metastases. The largest amount of metastases, 63.8% of cases were revealed in the patients of middle age (38-60 years). It was determined that the largest number of metastases were caused by lung tumors in men, and breast tumor in women.
The study also demonstrated other pathologies (chiefly glioblastoma). In 23.1% of cases brain pathology was not seen.
Conclusion: The use of CT for diagnosis of brain metastases proved the presence of metastases in 54.4% of cases. The highest incidence of metastases was observed in the group of patients aged 38-60%. In 22.5% of cases other pathologies were revealed.
Key words: computed tomography unit, metastases, brain.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 262
Radiodiagnosis of extradural tumors of the spinal cord and spinal column
Objective: To study the capabilities of radiodiagnosis in extradural tumors of the spinal cord and spinal column with myeloradicular compression.
Material and Methods: 83 cases of extradural tumors (38 men and 45 women aged 16–78), of them 24 hemangiomas, 12 chordomas, 11 osteoblastoclastromas, 6 osteosarcomas, 4 chondromas, 6 chordrosarcomas, 7 lymphomas, 4 dermoid cysts and solitary tumors of other histological types were studied. All the patients underwent traditional x-ray study, myelography, computed tomography, CT myelography (CTMG), magnetic resonance imaging in different combinations.
Results: Malignant tumors comrised 30% of all primary tumors. Preliminary localization of different histological types of tumors in the spine was determined. The characteristics of radiodiagnosis of different tumors were described.
Conclusion: Diagnostic accuracy of native MRI in extradural spinal tumors is 92%, that of CT and CTMG is 90–94%. The changes in the bone tissue, especially in the area of the arches, small calcifications, tender ossification of the soft tissue is better visualized with CT than with MRI with low intensity of the magnetic field. Complex use of myelography and delayed CT and CTMG allows to obtain sufficient information about the changes in the body and the arch of the vertebra, the degree of compression of the spinal cord and radices as well as to reveal caudal and cranial borders of the tumor in subarachnoid blockade. Traditional radiography yields considerably in determining the state of the spinal canal structures, the changes in the soft tissues but it is highly accurate (87%) in determining bone lesions. Ultravist and Omnipaque are low-toxic and highly effective preparation for myelography.
Key words: extradural tumors of the spinal cord and spinal column, radiodiagnosis, mielography, CT, CTMG, MRI.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 266
S.V. Babanin, I.L. Volochay, V.D. Moshchenko, O.B. Sohokon
Application of color coding of x-ray films to diagnosis of sinusitis
Objective: To determine the capabilities of color coding of x-ray films in diagnosis of diseases of maxillary sinuses.
Material and Methods: X-ray films of paranasal sinuses in 40 patients were investigated. The final diagnosis was made using axial computed tomography findings. After the digital processing the x-ray films were subjected to color coding followed by the study of equal density distribution.
Results: When pathological changes were absent, we observed symmetrical distribution of equal densities at color coding. When air content of the paranasal sinuses was decreased, color coding revealed asymmetric distribution of equal densities in the projection of the paranasal sinuses. In the projection of bone structures, equal density destribution as to the medial line was symmetrical. Different degree of translucency of the sinuses on the x-ray films can be due to not only the air content but also to the disturbance in the tube centering and errors in the patient positioning. At color coding asymmetrical distribution of equal densities at symmetrical localization of the anatomical structures suggested the wrong centering of the tube while asymmetrical distrulution of equal densities and asymmetrical anatomical structures suggested the wrong positioning.
Conclusion: The value of color coding at analysis of x-ray films is in the possibility to differentiate easily and significantly true hypopneumatosis of the sinus from reduction in the optical density of the x-ray films in the projection of the sinus and, thus to avoid sinusitis hyperdiagnosis. In combination with analysis of plain x-ray films it can allow to increase the accuracy of x-ray diagnosis of the above disease.
Key words: color coding, paranasal sinuses.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 270
Echocardiography diagnosis of mitral insuffiency in patients with post-infarction cardiosclerosis
Objective: Echocardiographic evaluation of mitral insufficiency in patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis.
Material and Methods: Two dimensional, pulse-wave and color Doppler echocardiographic examination was performed in 447 patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis, of them 227 patients without and 115 patients with left ventricular aneurysm, and 85 patients with ischemic cardiomiopathy. The degree of mitral regurgitation was evaluated from the left parasternal longitudinal approach and four-chamber apical section.
Results: Mitral insufficiency was registered in 94 (41.4%) patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis, in 57 (49.6%) with chronic left ventricular aneurysm and in 62 (72.9%) patients with ischemic cardiomiopathy.
The 1st degree of mitral regurgitation was observed in 74 (32.6%) patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis, in 39 (33.9%) with the chronic left ventricular aneurysm and in 31 (36.4%) patients with ischemic cardiomiopathy.
The 2nd degree of mitral regurgitation was noted in 17 (7.5%), in 14 (12.2%) and in 25 (29.4%) patients respectively. The 3rd degree of mitral regurgitation was observed rarely, in 3 (1.3%), in 4 (3.5%) and in 6 (7.1%) patients respectively.
Disfunction of the papillary muscles was observed in 85 (19%) of the 447 patients, small mixomatous degeneration of the mitral valve in 29 (6.5%) and mitral ring dilatation in 99 (22.15) patients.
Conclusion: Mitral insufficiency is observed almost in half of the patients (from 41 to 73%, mean 46.7%) with old myocardial infarction. The most frequent cause of small mitral regurgitation is disfunction of the papillary muscles, that of severe mitral insufficiency the mitral ring dilatation. Disfunction of the papillary muscles is more often noted in myocardial asynergy of the inferior and posterolateral segments. In the majority of patients with mitral regurgitation asynergy is located in the basal segments of the left ventricle.
Key words: echocardiography, postinfarction cardiosclerosis, disfunction of the papillary muscles, mitral regurgitation.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 273
Ultrasound in hydronephrosis diagnosis
Objective: To assess the capabilities of ultrasound examination and pharmacological ultrasonography in hydronephrosis diagnosis and selection of treatment technique for hydronephrosis.
Material and Methods: Ultrasound study was performed using Sonoline-1 unit (Siemens) with a linear and sector transducer.
Pharmacological ultrasonography was done in 28 patients
(12 with stage 1 hydronephrosis, 9 with stage 2 and 7 with stage hydronephrosis). The patients with stage 2 and 3 hydronephrosis were operated on.
Results: Ultrasound allows to make the diagnosis of hydronephrosis in 98-100% of cases. It is an effective technique
for determining the degree of dilation of the calicopelvic system, the area, the amount of the preserved parenchyma of the kidney
as well as comparative dynamics of the results of plastic surgery in the immediate and long-term period.
Conclusion: Being non-invasive and highly informative express method, ultrasound study allows to evaluate topographic anatomy of the kidneys and the urinary tract as well as the degree of their obstruction.
Key words: ultrasound diagnosis, hydronephrosis.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 277
V.M. Slavnov, V.V. Markov, S.V. Zemlyanskay
Complex radionuclide diagnosis of lesions of extremities in patients with diabetes mellitus
Objective: Development of complex radionuclide methods for investigation of hemodynamics and structure of the lower extremities as well as investigation of their functional structural state in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Material and Methods: Fifty-four patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and micro-macroangiopathy of the lower extremities, stage II neuropathic ulcers of the feet were studied using the developed technique. Radionuclide angiography and scintigraphy of the lower extremities were done after intravenous administration of Tc 99m pertechnetate using gamma-camera MB 9200 with the system of automatic processing Microsegams.
Results: The authors worked out radionuclide technique for investigation of hemodynamics and the structure of lower extremities which included radionuclide angiography and scintigraphy. In patients with DM with stage II micro-macroangiopathy of the lower extremities, reduction of the blood velocity in the arterioles and capillaries of the feet was revealed. Slowing down the velocity of the blood flow in the large vessels, arterioles and capillaries was observed in DM with neuropathic ulcers. The most prominent disturbances of hemodynamics of the lower extremities were observed in DM with neuroischemic ulcers.
Conclusion: The obtained data indicate the necessity of complex radionuclide study in patients with DM to determine the leading causative agent in vascular lesions and to administer the adequate treatment.
Key words: radionuclide angiography, scintigraphy, diabetes mellitus, micro-macroangiopathy of the lower extremities, neuropathic and neuroischemic ulcers of feet.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 280
S.S. Makyeyev, O.YA. Hlavatskyy, V.V. Kondratyuk, H.V. Khmilnytskyy
The experience of Tc-99m MIBI application in brain tumor tomoscintigraphy
Objective: To evaluate diagnostic is capabilities of SPECT with Tc-99m MIBI in investigation of characteristic features of brain tumors.
Material and Methods: Tc-99m MIBI is widely used for diagnosis of lung, breast and thyroid tumors but the capabilities of this preparation in brain tumor diagnosis have not been sufficiently studied. SPECT with Tc-99m MIBI was used to investigate 32 patients with brain tumors. The investigations were performed with the use of “E. Cam” unit (Siemens) according to a standard protocol. Tc-99m MIBI was administered to the cubital vein. Visual characteristics of the foci were evaluated, asymmetry coefficient (AC), i.e. focus radioactivity ratio, was calculated.
Results: SPECT with Tc-99m MIBI allowed to evaluate the localization, shape, size of the tumors as well as presence of cysts and zones of decomposition. Extracerebral and the majority of intracerebral tumors, except stage II gliomas, were represented by the foci of increased radiolabel accumulation. The highest AC was observed in meningeomas (90.5) and was 4 times higher than that in the other tumors. Stage II gliomas were not detected with SPECT with Tc-99m MIBI, but dislocation of chorioid plexi was regarded as an indirect sigh of a voluminous neoplasm.
Conclusion: SPECT with Tc-99m MIBI is informative for revealing the majority of brain tumors. Visualization of chorioid plexi, dislocation of which is an indirect sign of a voluminous process, is a characteristic feature of the study with Tc-99m MIBI.
Key words: Tc-99m MIBI, metoxi-isobutyl isonitril, SPECT, emission tomography, brain tumors.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 284
N.O. Kovpan, V.V. Markov, V.M. Slavnov, S.T. Zubkova, H.A. Zubkova
The use of radionuclide techniques in studying cerebral circulation in patients with Itsenko-Cushing disease
Objective: To study the functional state of cerebral circulation in patients with Itsenko-Cushing disease (ICD) at influence of surgical and drug treatment.
Material and Methods: Brain scan was performed using MB 9200 gamma-camera (Hungary) and Tc-99m pertechnetate in 28 patients with ICD and 10 controls.
Results: Vessel scan in the active stage of ICD demonstrated considerably increased time of maximal blood flow and indicator cleance. After the treatment in the patients in the state of clinical remission and after unilateral adrenalectomy more pronounced delay in the linear blood flow was noted.
After Parlodel administration the changes in hemodynamic parameters were not noted. After total adrenalectomy the time of RP circulation became normal due to accelerated radioisotope clearance but linear velocity of the arterial blood flow remained decreased.
Conclusion: The use of radionuclide techniques increases the capabilities of the study of functional state of the cerebral blood flow in patients with hypercorticism and can be used to evaluate the results of the treatment.
Key words: radionuclide diagnosis, Itsenko-Cushing disease, linear velocity of brain arterial blood flow.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 287
T.P. Yakymova, I.M. Ponomarov, O.K. Kononenko
Characteristics of ultrastructure changes in breast cancer depending on rhythms of radiotherapy
Objective: To determine the ultrastructure characteristics of radiation pathomorphosis in breast cancer (BC) with the purpose to optimize the treatment.
Material and Methods: Pathohistological and ultrastructure study of BC before and after small- and large- fractionated radiotherapy (2 Gy and 5 Gy) was performed in 23 patients.
Results: The ultrastructure of breast cancer was similar to normal breast cell. In cancer, espesially ductal and low-differentiated, the number of cells with spontaneous necrosis was small. Radiotherapy caused appearance of injured nuclei and cytoplasm, which were especially prominent at radiotherapy with large fractions. After radiotherapy both injured and poorly injured cancer cells were observed.
Conclusion: The ultrastructure of breast cancer has the signs of normal secretory cells of this organ, cribrous cancer has ductal origin as the signs of secretory cells are not traced in it. With low degrees of cancer differentiation its similarity to normal epithelium increases.
Radiation lesion of BC is observed in all structural elements, mainly mitochondria, ribosomes and nuclei. Ultrastructure and light radiation pathomorphosis is more pronounced after irradiation with large fractions.
Key words: breast cancer ultrastructure, radiotherapy, different rhythms.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 292
Prevention of chemotherapy complications in breast and genital cancer In women using Algigel
Objective: To study the preventive effect of Algigel as to the toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs (CTD) in treatments of cancer of the breast, uterine body and cervix, ovaries with the use of quantitative scale.
Material and Methods: The study was performed in two randomized groups of patients: group 1 — the controls (26) and group 2 — study group (87). The degree of toxicity of the CTD was evaluated using Yarbro scale (1993).
Results: Significant reduction of CTD toxicity degree in cancer of the breast, uterine body and cervix, ovaries in all the studied criteria (hematological, metabolic, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urorenal) except hepatologic was observed when Algigel was administered.
Conclusion: Algigel can be recommended for administration in oncology practice as a preventive means to reduce side-effects of chemotherapy for breast and genital cancer in women.
Key words: toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs, Algigel.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 295
YE.M. Horban, N. V. Topolnikova
Effect of single x-irradiation on glucocorticoid function of adrenal glands of adult and old rats
Objective: To study the peculiarities of short-term (1 h, 1 day) adrenal glucocorticoid function in adult and old rats after single x-irradiation at different doses.
Material and Methods: The level of basal (nonstimulated) and ACTH-stimulated glucocorticoid secretion by isolated adrenal glands of adult (6-8 months) and old (26-28 months) Wistrar male rats were estimated 1 h or 1 day after single x-irradiation at the doses of 1 Gy; 4.5 Gy or 6 Gy.
Results: In the early stages (1 h, 1 day) after single irradiation at used spectrum of doses, the blood plasma 11-OCS in the adult rats increased in contrast to old animals and had a phase pattern (increase after 1 h and decrease after 1 day).
One hour after x-irradiation at doses 1 or 6 Gy, the basal secretion of 11-OCS by isolated adrenals increased in adult rats, and did not change in old animals. The reactivity of isolated adrenals on ACTH did not change in adult and old irradiated animals compared to the controls.
Conclusion: Changes in the glucocorticoid function of the adrenal glands at studied terms after single x-irradiation at used doses were observed in adult but not in old animals. This testifies to an age-related decrease in the range of adaptive possibilities of this link of the organism adaptive system to x-irradiation effects.
Key words: x-irradiation, adrenal glands, glucocorticoid function, aging
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 298
L. O. Bondarenko
Influence of low-dose x-rays on the w ays of biosynthesis and indole metabolism in pineal gland
Objective: To study the dynamics of indolilalkilamine biochemical conversions in the pineal gland at exposure to ionizing radiation in low doses.
Materials and Methods: The concentration of serotonin in N-acetylserotonin, melatonin, 5-methoxytriptamine, 5-oxy- and 5-methoxyindolilacetous acids the epiphysis were studied fluorimetrically 1, 7, 14, 30, 45, 90 and 180 days after fractional 3-fold (0.25 G) x-ray irradiation of 168 adult male Wistar rats. Total dose was 0.75Gy.
Results: Significant increase of serotonin biosynthesis and its metabolism in response to low-dose ionizing radiation was revealed in the pineal gland during first 14 days both on the way of direct О-methylation with 5-methoxytriptamin release and of N-acethylation with melatonin release. In 3 months the above indices were normal and in 6 months — suppessed.
Conclusion: The pineal gland is a radiosensitive organ which reacts even to low doses of radiation. Having gone through the stages of activating, normalizing and exhausting indoles biosynthesis suffers from different changes in the pineal gland in response to the influence of ionizing radiation in low doses.
Key words: ionizing radiation, pineal gland, indolilalkilamines, melatonin.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 303
T.O. Kirpenko, I.M. Kondrichin, L.I. Ostapchenko, M.YE. Kucherenko
Influence of ionizing radiation of receptor tyrosine proteinkinases from lymphocytes of rat spfeen
Objective: To investigate the influence of ionizing radiation in sublethal doses on the regulation of tyrosine protekinase system of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in lymphoid cells of rat spleen.
Material and Methods: The model for the study were lymphocytes of the spleen isolated with Ficoll-Paque gradient in the controls and 12 hours after irradiation of the rats with РУМ-17 unit at the dose of 0.5 and 1 Gy. EGF-receptor tyrosine proteinkinases were obtained with immunoaffine chromatography, their activity was evaluated according to P-32 activity from g-P-32-ATP in the protein substrate. The activity of receptor proteinphosphatases was evaluated by the amount of inorganic phosphate splitted off the protein substrate.
Results: The results of the study of the mechanisms of EGF-receptor tyrosine proteinkinases in the lymphocytes of the rat spleen at exposure to radiation were generalized. Total x-ray irradiation at a dose of 1 Gy causes hyperactivity of EGF-receptor tyrosine proteinkinases which is accompanied by intensification of the process of autophosphorilizing of this enzyme. Radiation induced hyperphosphorilizing of EGF-receptor tyrosine proteinkinases was caused by the dysbalance in the function of the system of receptor proteinkinases.
Conclusion: Molecular mechanisms of phospho- and dephosphorilrzing of EGF-receptor tyrosine proteinkinases take part in the reaction of immune-competent cells of the spleen in rats to the effect of x-ray irradiation at a dose of 1 Gy. The role of EGF-receptor proteinphosphatases as a rеgulatory mechanism of EGF-receptor function in the lymphocytes of the spleen at exposure to radiation is shown.
Key words: epidermal growth factor, tyrosine proteinkinases, proteinphosphotases, x-ray, spleen lymphocytes.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 306
Development of lens opacifications as a result of chronic irradiation of rabbits with small doses of x-rays and polychromatic light
Objective: To find out the correlation between metabolic disturbances in the eye tissues and development of lens opacifications as a result of chronic irradiation of rabbits with small doses of ionizing radiation and polychromatic light.
Material and Methods: We studied the existence and the degree of expression of correlation between metabolic disturbances in the eye tissues, blood and liver (changes in activity of ATP-ase, ceruloplasmin, concetration of free amino nitrogen, ascorbic acid and resistance of erythrocytes to hydrogen peroxide) and development of lens opacities (by the data of biomicroscopy), during chronic irradiation of animals with small doses of ionizing radiation and polychromatic light, using the methods of variation statistics, correlational and factorial analysis.
Results: Irradiation of animals with ionizing radiation and polychromatic light, separately or in combination caused development of lens opacities, which appeared earlier during combined action of these factors; the degree of their expression and the speed of development was higher. The sensitivity of animals to the radioactive factors used was determined by the initial level of metabolic provision of the organism and the degree of expression of metabolic disturbances in the eye structures correlated with the intensity of lens opacities. We found the dependence of expression of metabolic disturbances in the blood of animals in the dynamic of their irradiation on experimental influences. We found the number of statistically significant links between biochemical parameters of blood, the change of which significantly correlate with applied radioactive factors and investigated parameters in eye tissues.
Conclusion: Combined irradiation of rabbits with ionizing radiation and polychromatic light produces more expressed cataractogenic effect, when compared with separate influence. Statistically significant changes of activity of ATP-ase, ceruloplasmin, concentration of ascorbic acid and free amino nitrogen in the eye tissues, blood and liver of irradiated animals is an evidence of their participation in the mechanism of realization of damage action of used radioactive and light factors.
Key words: ionizing radiation, polychromatic light, chronic radiation, eye tissues, metabolic parameters, statistical analysis.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 311
N.O. Karpenko, N.M. Chub H.A. Bryz·halova, M.YU. Alesina
Sperm parameters in rats after low-dose irradiation oi sex cells in male parents during two cycles of gametogenesis
Objective: To investigate the influence of combined (internal and external) low-dose irradiation in male rats (during two gametogenesis cycles) on sperm parameters in parents and offsprings (F1) and to compare the sensitivity to low-dose irradiation in the above.
Material and Methods: Wistar male rats were exposed to combined irradiation of different dose rate (radioactive water with three levels of activity from the pool-bubblier of the Chornobyl Atomic Power Plant (4th block) and radioactive forage) during 4 months and were mated with intact females. Then epididymis spermatozoa were evaluated and spectroradiometric measurement of the muscles and bones was performed to calculate absorbed doses (AD). The offspring viability at 1 month of of age and sperm parameters at 9 month age were evaluated. Part of the offspring were exposed to a minimum radioactive load from 4 till 9 months of life, and then spectroradiometric measurements and sperm investigation were performed.
Results: It was revealed that irradiation during 4 months with AD 0.4-3.6 cGy was accompanied by increase in spermatozoon concentration with a high percentage of abnomal cells. After mating of irradiated males with intact females a normal quantity of pups was received. Viability of the offsprings from the fathers with AD 0.7 and 3.6 сGy was significantly lower then in the controls and consentration of epididymis spermatozoa was reduced in sex-mature age. The offsprings under additional minimal radioactive load during 5 months (AD 0.4 cGy) had more significant reduction in concentration (on an average by 17%).
Conclusion: Chronic combined (internal and external) irradiation in low doses (absorbed doses 0.4-3.6 сGy) during two cycles of gametogenesis results in defective stimulation of spermatogenesis in male rats and provokes genotoxyc action. The offspring from fathers with 0.7 and 3.6 cGy irradiation have decreased viability and oligozoospermia in mature age. The offsprings from the father with 3.6 cGy have increased sensitivity to weak irradiation and react by increased oligozoospermia. The data are accord with the idea abount more pronounced genetic radioresistance of premeiosis cells during gametogenesis.
Key words: chronic combined irradiation, low doses, rats, spermatozoa, genetic sensitivity.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 315
The role ofeicosanoids in development of adaptation reactions in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis
Objective: To establish the association between eicosanoids and adaptation reaction (AR) of the organism in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis; to reveal the influence of eicosanoids on subjective and objective state of the patients.
Material and Methods: The study involved 85 patient with latent chronic glomerulonephritis (LCG) treated at Nephrology Department of Regional Clinical Hospital. The complex of examination before and after the treatment included clinіcal, biochemical and radioimmune study.
Results: In patients with LCG, a large group with non-specific stress-reaction was revealed, the latter was characterized by activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system tendency to increase in eicosanoid amount, metabolic acidoses.
Conclusion: The obtained results suggest great adaptation capabilities of renal canalicular function in patients with LCG.
Key words: glomerulonephritis, adaptation reactions, diagnosis.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 317
M.D. Bondarkov, V.O. Zheltonozhskyy, L. Myuk, F.V. Chupov
Investigation of Cs-137 Chornobyl fallout nearby 30-km zone of Chornobyl NPP
Objective: To obtain the data about effective period of half-loss Teff Cs 134, 137 according to the decrease in Cs-137 concentration.
Material and Methods: The study was done in the districts of Chernigiv Region where the portion of global Cs-137 fallout did not exceed 10% of total Cs-134, 137 activity. The interrelation of Chornobyl activities of Cs-134 and Cs-137 was determined in soil samples from the 30-km zone of Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant. The measurement was performed simultaneously with taking milk samples.
To study Cs-137 activity, samples of the milk produced in Chernigiv Region where contamination density ranged from 37 to 370 kBq/m2 (90% quantil equaled 150 kBq/m2) were taken. The measurement was done every year at the same time in spring and autumn. The number of samples ranged from 40 to 60 for each farm.
During the first years after the accident, large specific activities of Cs-137 were observed against a natural background of K-40 g-quanta and daughter products of radioactive decay of Th-232, therefore main investigation was performed using ДП-100 and KPK radiometers. The accuracy of the measurement was 30-40%. The ratio of Cs-137 and natural radionuclides has changed considerably in the recent years, therefore the measurement was done with Ge and Ge (Li) spectrometer (100-200 cm3) with energy resolution 1.6-1.8 keV on g-line 662 keV located in the protection from a low-background iron. It allowed to exclude the influence of K-40. The accuracy of the measurement was <10%. The data about Sr-90 were determined with 30% accuracy.
Results: Specific activity and effective period of half-loss of Cs-137 (Teff) obtained from the analysis of g-spectrometry and radiometry findings (1991-1996) were in good accordance.
Specific activity of Cs-137 in milk has been decreasing gradually from 1987, while effective period of half-loss of Cs-137 has been changing from 580 to 720 days (Teff=640±70 days), which is less than the respective value obtained at analysis of global fallout (Teff=4.5 years).
Conclusion: The obtained disagreement in Teff for the global and Chornobyl fallout can be due to the fact that after stopping nuclear tests in the atmosphere in the USSR and the USA in 1964, a large amоunt of Cs-137 in the upper layers of the atmosphere falls out with two characteristic times due to the movement of the atmospheric masses: small and large (up to 10 years). In case of the accident at CNPP, main radioactive fallout was observed during the first two months after the accident. Therefore, by the and of 1986, direct contamination of farms with radioactive cesium had stopped and by the beginning of the measurement (summer of 1987), the action of cesium in the environment and foodstuff and milk was determined by the precipitation during the first two months after the accident.
Key words: milk, specific activity of Cs-137, effective period of half loss Teff, collective doses of population exposure.
2001, vol 9, № 3, page 321
L.O. Solodka, V.M. Voytsitskiy
The character of association between some representatives of paunch misroflora in chronic administration of Cs-137 with forage
Objective: To study the reaction of the paunch microflora in ruminant animals to chronic administration of Cs-137 with forage.
Material and Methods: Specific Cs-137 activity and the amount of aerotolerant bacteria and actinomycetes of different trophic groups were determined in the samples of the paunch contents taken 1 hour before and after morning feeding in 4 oxen of black motley breed with a large paunch fistula. Two times a day the animals receved the forage with the same chemical composition but with different Cs-137 amount in grass hay. The information about the amount of the microorganisms were processed with the use of correlation analysis according to Terentiev.
Results: Feeding with a contaminated forage changed the composition of the microbial complex, but the degree of organisation remained unchanged. The stability of the structure of the microbial complex was provided by the associations between the representatives of different morphophysiological groups. After the animals had been transperred to a clean forage the structure of the microbial complex did not return to the initial state characteristic for a pure forage during 1.5 months of the observation
Conclusion: Fluctuations in Cs-137 specific activity in the forage do not influence the degree of organisation in the complex of aerotolerant microbes, but are accompanied by redistribution of associations between them.
Key words: paunch microflora, aerotolerant bacteria and actinomycetes, structure of microbial complex.
We are proud to announce the annual scientific conference of young scientists with the international participation, dedicated to the Day of Science in Ukraine. The conference will be held on 20th of May, 2016 and hosted by L.T. Malaya National Therapy Institute, NAMS of Ukraine together with Grigoriev Institute for medical Radiology, NAMS of Ukraine. The leading topic of conference is prophylaxis of the non-infectious disease in different branched of medicine.
Since 1993 the Institute became the founder and publisher of "Ukrainian Journal of Radiology”: