2001, vol IX, # 2
2001, vol 9, № 2, page 126
Statistics of cancer in Canada: possible comparison to cancer Register in Ukraine
Having studied Cancer Register of Canada (2000) and Ukraine (1998) the authors analyze and discuss main indices which characterize the state of oncological servise in the both countries. It is known that according to international standards oncological situation in the country is evaluated by three indices: quantitutive (mortality and morbidity) and qualitative (1-, 3-, 5-, 10- and more year survival). The latter is the only objective means for evaluation of organisation, prevention, diagnostic and therapeutic aid to the population of Ukraine.
Accordind to Ukrainian Cancer Register in 1998 the morbidity in Ukraine was 264.25 (men) and 179.46 (women) per 100000. The mortality was 178.98 and 87.97 respectively. Death rate within the 1st year was 38.7%. Taking into consideration that only 8 regions of Ukraine have their database of 5-year survival in the Register, the complete information will be published in future.
To compare these and other parameters the authors cite not only the data for Canada and Ukraine but also basic WHO data and some Russian publications about cancer statistics.
The authors give the specialists the possibility not only to evaluate and interpret the materials but also to take part in a broad discussion about the ways to improve oncological aid to Ukrainian population.
Key words: Cancer Register, cancer statistics, morbility, mortality, survival, screaning, diagnosis, cancer treatment.
2001, vol 9, № 2, page 215
Capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of renal tumors
Objective: To study the capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosis of renal tumors.
Material and Methods: MR unit (Toshiba) was used to examine 45 patients aged 30-79 having renal tumors. The study consisted of two stages: non-contrast study and examination with contrast enhancement using Magnevist. The investigation of the clinical material allowed to analyze the capabilities of MRI in diagnosis of renal tumors.
Results: The study enabled us to analyze the structure of the retroperitoneal space, to reveal the deformity, changes in the location of the kidneys, vessels, lymph nodes as well as to characterize the structure of the tumor according to the character of the signal. Determing the state of the collateral kidney and lymph nodes facilitates staging of the disease and evaluation of the volume of surgical intervention.
Conclusion: MRI is an objective technique of the urinary system study which allows to characterize tumor growths with great accuracy. MRI allows to reveal the tumors measuring from 1 cm at the pre-clinical stage. The manifestation of these tumors is MR signal in Tl and T2 weighted images and retention of the contrast substance on the 2nd stage of the study. Determining the state of the collateral kidney facilitates the choice of the surgical technique. Direct correlation of the size of the lymph nodes and the size of the tumor was revealed.
Key words: MRI, kidneys, tumor, Magnevist.
2001, vol 9, № 2, page 219
Echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with chronic postinfarction aneurysm
Objective: Echocardiographic evaluation of systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle in patients with chronic postinfarction aneurysm.
Materials and Methods: Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic examination was performed in 115 patients with chronic postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm. Segmental and global systolic, as well as diastolic functions of the left ventricle was studied.
Results: Chronic postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm was noted in 84.3% men and in 15.7% women. The highest incidence of the aneurysm was in patients aged 50-60 (53% of all observations). The apico-septal localization of the aneurysm was observed in 57 (49,6%) patients, inferior-apical in 18 (17.4%), anterior-septal and posterior localization in 20 (17.4%) patients.
In patients with anterio-septal localization of the aneurysm the highest index of local contractility (1.35=0.02) and the lesser ejection fraction (37.6=1.52%) was registered. This parameters for patients with apico-septal, inferio-apical and posterior localization of the aneurvsm were 1.29=0.02 and 41.4=1.83%; 1.33=0.02 and 37.9=2.02%; 1.29=0.02 and 42.3=1.95%, respectively. The degree of shortening of the anterior-posterior left ventricle dimension (2S) was maximal in patients with apical aneurysm (30=1.03%). In basal septal and posterior wall localization of the aneurysm the degree of 2S was 25.1=0.96% and 23.7%=0.83 respectively.
Abnormal relaxation of the LV myocardium was observed in 85 (73.9%) patients, normal in 21 (18.3%), pseudonormalization of the filling in 7 (6.1%) and restrictive filling in 2 (1.7%) patients respectively. Pseudonormalization of the LV filling and restrictive relaxation were noted in patients with large apical aneurysm.
Conclusion: Chronic postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm are observed in men aged 50-60. In the majority of cases aneurysm is characterized with disorders of myocardium relaxation. There is relationship between the aneurysm localization, segmental contractility index, global systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle.
Key words: echocardiographic examination, chronic postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm, diskinesis and myocardial akinesis, abnormal and restrictive relaxation, pseudonormalization.
2001, vol 9, № 2, page 223
N.V. Momot, O.O. Savchenko, YU.V. Dumanskiy
Capabilities of ultrasound study and computed tomography in diagnosis of*exacerbations of different forms of* chronic pancreatitis
Objective: To reveal the capabilities of ultrasound study (US) and computed tomography (CT} in diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis exacerbations.
Material and Methods: 374 patients with chronic pancreatitis were studied using US and CT. The results were processed using the characteristics of sensitivity and specifisity and ROC-curve apparatus.
Results: Activation of chronic inflammatory process manifested by edema and necrosis of pancreas or extrapancreatic exudation which had different rate in different forms of chronic pancreatitis. Pancreonecrosis was observed chiefly in calcificated chronic pancreatitis, exudation in obstructive chronic pancreatitis. All forms of chronic pancreatitis had equal incidence of edema and combination of pancreonecrosis and exudation.
Sensitivity of US and CT were 60.3% and 96.6%, specificity-77.8% and 94.1%, positive predictive value - 69.2% and 95.5%, respectively, in diagnosis of necrosis in chronic pancreatitis. Sensitivity of US and CT were 72.4% and 96.9%, specificity- at 100% for both, positive predictive value - 89.8% and 98.9%, -respectively in diagnosis of exudation forms of chronic pancreatitis. ROC-curves demonstrated high efficacy of CT in comparison with US in necrosis and exudation diagnosis.
Conclusion: US and CT are effective methods in diagnosis of different forms of chronic pancreatitis.
Key words: chronic pancreatitis, ultrasound, computed tomography, pancreas.
2001, vol 9, № 2, page 228
O.CH. Khadzhiyev, V.I. Lupaltsov
Evaluation of motor-evacuation function of gastroduodenal complex after resection of the stomach and vagotomy in patients with perforated ulcer and drug correction of its disturbances
Objective: To study the motor-evacuation function of the gastroduodenal complex after vagotomy and stomach resection in patients with perforated ulcer.
Material and Methods: To make early diagnosis of motor-evacuation disturbances, contrast x-ray study of the gastrointestinal tract, computed electrogastroenterography. clinical study, esophagogastroduodenoscopy were used in 192 patients.
Results: In 66.5% of cases post-operative period was characterized by the disturbances of motor activity of the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract and dyspeptic phenomena, retention or complete absence of evacution of the contrast substance from the stomach as well as reduction in myoelectric activity of the whole gastrointestinal tract and considerable inhibition of biopotential of the stomach.
Conclusion: The above changes occur due to dissection of the vagal nerve which causes serotonin deficiency in the organism. Exogeneous administration of serotonin adipinate contributes prevention and treatment of motor disturbances of the smooth muscles.
Key words: perforated gastroduodenal ulcer, motor disturbances, drug correction of motor disturbances.
2001, vol 9, № 2, page 232
Radiotherapy of uterine body cancer with preliminary cryodestruction of the tumor
Objective: To increase the efficacy of radiotherapy of uterine body cancer (UBC) using preliminary cryodestruction of the tumor.
Material and Methods: The study involved 57 patients, of them 28 with cryodestruction of the tumor before radiotherapy (study group) and 29 patients with UBC treated with radiotherapy without cryotherapy (controls).
Preliminary cryodestruction of the uterine cavity was performed under ultrasound control the day before radiotherapy in two treatments, 5 min. each with the change of the probe localization in the uterus angles using nitrous oxide at -70s С with cryogenic gynecological apparatus АКГ-01.
Distance gamma-therapy was done using Rokus-M unit, intracavitary irradiation — Agat-B.
Results: In 28 patients of the study group, 3 - year survival was 25 (89,3%). In the controls unsatisfactory results were observed in 12 (41,4%) of the patients.
Comparative analysis of the data demonstrated significant improvement of the results of radiotherapy in UBC patients with preliminary cryodestruction of the tumor when compared with the controls (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Main cause of failure in radiotherapy for UBC with linear sourcers for intracavitary gamma-therapy is untreated primary tumor focus and relapses in the zone of treatment.
Preliminary cryodestruction of the tumor improves the results of radiotherapy for UBC.
Key words: uterine body cancer, radiotherapy, cryodestruction of the tumor.
2001, vol 9, № 2, page 236
T.P. Yakymova, H.S. Yefymova
Pathomorphism of radiation cystitis at radiotherapy for uterine cervix cancer
Objective: To characterize the pathomorphism of radiation cystitis which develops at radiotherapy for uterine cervix and body cancer and to evaluate the efficacy of its treatment with Lipochromin-350.
Material and Methods: Radiation pathomorphism of cystitis was studied in 40 patients with cancer of the cervix and body of the uterus after radiotherapy. The treatment of the patients with the use of Lipochromin-350 was evaluated.
Results: Radiation cystitis with moderate damage of the epithelium and marked injury of the stroma developed during radiotherapy in 53% of patients with uterine cancer. Administration of Lipochromin-350 did not influence considerably the radiation pathomorphism of cystitis but diminished radiation injury of the stroma preventing fibrinoid necrosis of the stroma and its vessels.
Conclusion: The use of Lipochromin-350 in treatment of radiation cystitis prevents necrotic changes in the stroma of the urinary bladder.
Key words: cancer of the uterine body and cervix, radiotherapy, pathomorphism of radiation cvstitis, treatment with Lipochromin-350.
2001, vol 9, № 2, page 240
O.S. Dudnychenko, T.P. Yakymova, S.M. Kartashov, I.V. Kalaputs
Ovarian cancer: second-line chemotherapy
Objective: To study the efficacy of treatment of ovarian cancer (ОС) depending on the use of second-line chemotherapy (CT) with the account of the degree of the tumor differentiation and the process dissemination.
Material and Methods: The study involved 425 patients with stage I-IV ОС in whom the results of treatment were evaluated according to the life span and 5-year survival. All patients had epithelial tumors. In all cases the degree of the tumor differention was determined. The age of the patients ranged from 29 to 72. Platinum preparations were used for second-line chemotherapy: CP (cyclophosphamide + cysplatin), CAP (cyclophosphamide + cys-platin + doxorubicin in free or liposomal form - lipodox), cysplatin - paklitaxel.
Results: Long-term results in the patients with ОС depended on the use of second line chemotherapy, this correlation is connected with the process dissemination and degree of the tumor differentiation. Second-line chemotherapy allowed to prolong the life of the patients at all grades of tumor differentiation at 1-111 stage and in patients with highly differentiated tumors at IV stage.
Conclusion: The use of second line CT improves the results of treatment in ОС. The more dissemenated is the process and the lower is the degree of differentiation, the less effective is second-line CT.
Key words: ovarian cancer, chemotherapy, stage of the disease, tumor differentiation.
We are proud to announce the annual scientific conference of young scientists with the international participation, dedicated to the Day of Science in Ukraine. The conference will be held on 20th of May, 2016 and hosted by L.T. Malaya National Therapy Institute, NAMS of Ukraine together with Grigoriev Institute for medical Radiology, NAMS of Ukraine. The leading topic of conference is prophylaxis of the non-infectious disease in different branched of medicine.
Since 1993 the Institute became the founder and publisher of "Ukrainian Journal of Radiology”: